Latest News & Articles
March 23, 2012
Ovarian cancer is a malignant tumor that grows from the ovary or ovaries. Ovarian cancer is commonly referred to as ovarian cancer. Ovaries are female reproductive organs that produce eggs (germ cell). Every normal woman has two ovaries, on the right and left of the uterus.
Ovary is the organ that is unique, because it produces eggs as 'seed' for the next offspring (children). However, like other organs in the body, the ovaries have a network of outer layer (epithelium) and connective tissue (stroma). Therefore, the tumors derived from the ovary may arise from the three tissue types, namely epithelial tumors, germ cell tumor, and tumor cells of connective tissue (stromal cell tumor).
Many times we hear the term 'cyst' as a designation for ovarian cancer. The term means the tumor is round cysts whose contents are mostly liquid. Cysts can be malignant (cancerous) or benign (benign tumor). So the term ovarian cysts only show that there is a fluid-filled spherical tumor in a woman and not have to mean a cancer.
The majority of ovarian cancers are epithelial cancers and usually occurs in older women (postmenopausal). Germ cell cancer usually occurs in girls or young women. Cancer usually occurs on one side of the ovary, but can also grow on both sides. Germ cell cancer is usually only on one side the ovary.
In addition to the distribution of the above, there are also so-called ovarian tumors of low malignant potential. This group is usually called tumors with low malignant potential or borderline malignancy. On this tumor, abnormal cells can become malignant, but rarely so. Tumours usually remain in the ovaries, do not spread to other organs.
Why I Can Hit Ovarian Cancer?
No one knows exactly why a woman can get ovarian cancer and others do not. Clearly, someone with a history of ovarian cancer in the family (mother, daughter, sister, grandmother, aunt) had a higher risk than other women. If there is a factor of 'offspring' (an inherited gene mutation in a family), then every woman in the family have the same risk of cancer.
Most patients with ovarian cancer have no known cause. There are several risk factors seem to play a role in the incidence of ovarian cancer, such as advanced age, use of hormonal medications (birth control pills, hormone replacement therapy) long-term, never pregnant, consumption of drugs, fertility enhancer, wear powder on the genitals, obesity , and so forth. However, these risk factors rarely act alone and may be associated with a particular situation is not yet known.
What are the symptoms of Ovarian Cancer?
In the early stages, ovarian cancer does not cause any symptoms. If there are symptoms, the cancer is usually sufficient information. Symptoms that may be experienced are:
Abdominal pain or enlargement
Pain in the pelvis (pangul cavity)
Abdominal discomfort (bloating, feeling full quickly, difficult to dispose of large Bair).
These symptoms are not typical for cancer and many diseases also cause similar symptoms. Therefore if there are symptoms, better consult a doctor who understands that can be known and addressed.
How Do I Know If I ovarian cancer?
Ovarian cancer is still small is usually discovered accidentally, when you go for prenatal check-ups or any other use ultrasonography (USG).
Suspicion of ovarian cancer is usually made after a careful examination of content coupled with ultrasound. However, a definitive diagnosis of ovarian cancer can only be made after the tumor is removed (an operation). Frequent ovarian tumors that were previously suspected cancer was not cancer after surgery and examined the anatomic pathology laboratory. This is because ultrasound can not confirm whether a tumor or cyst, benign or malignant.
What To Do After I Ovarian Cancer Diagnosed?
Stage Ovarian Cancer
In stage I, cancer can be found in one or both ovaries. Cancer cells can be found on the outer surface of one or both ovaries or in the abdominal cavity fluid (peritoneum).
In stage II, cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread to other parts of the pelvic cavity. Cancer cells are found in the ovaries tract (fallopian tubes), uterus (uterus), or other tissues. Cancer cells can also be found in the abdominal cavity fluid.
Cancer cells have spread to tissues outside the pelvis (pelvis) or spread to nearby lymph nodes (regional). Cancer cells can also be found on the outside (surface) of the liver.
Cancer cells have spread to other tissues outside the abdominal cavity and pelvis. Cancer cells may be present in the liver, lungs or other organs.
Ovarian Cancer Treatment
There are several types of treatment can be given for ovarian cancer. Differences were also determined from the type of cancer, whether epithelial cancer, germ cell or other types. The standard treatment usually involves surgery and chemotherapy.
The majority of patients will undergo surgical removal of the tumor. Types of operations performed are:
Total hysterectomy: the appointment procedure of the uterus, cervix, and ovaries. If done with an incision in the abdominal wall, surgery is called a total abdominal hysterectomy. If removed through small incisions using a laparoscope, the procedure is called laparoscopic hysterectomy.
Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: surgery to remove one ovary and one ovary tract (fallopian tubes).
Bilateral salpingo-oorofektomi: surgery to remove both ovaries and both channels.
Omentektomi: surgery to remove the omentum (tissue that lines the abdominal wall).
Lymph node biopsy: removal of all or part of the lymph nodes.
Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing cancer cells or prevent them from dividing (proliferating). Chemotherapy is usually done by incorporating the drug into the blood vessels (injection).
Selection of Therapy Based on Stage of Cancer
Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Stage I and II
Epithelial ovarian cancer treatment options stage I and II include:
Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and omentektomi. Lymph nodes and other tissues in the pelvis and abdomen (eg appendicitis) is usually also taken for examination under a microscope whether to bear children spread of cancer cells.
Total abdominal hysterectomy, unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and omentektomi. Same as above, lymph nodes and other tissues in the pelvic and abdominal cavity are also removed for examination under a microscope.
Surgery followed by chemotherapy.
Ovarian Cancer Stage III and IV
Epithelial ovarian cancer treatment options stage III and IV of the first is removal of the tumor (if it can be removed) with total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and omentektomi. After surgery, usually followed by chemotherapy as much as 6 times. In tumors that are large or can not be operated on, usually in the form of chemotherapy treatment is given 3 times neoajuvan. Then, the tumor is checked again whether shrink and can be operated on. If you can, do the same operation as above. After surgery, can be resumed with chemotherapy.