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March 18, 2012
Cervical cancer is a malignant tumor that grows from the tissue of the cervix or the cervix uteri. Also called cervical cancer. The cervix is the narrow bottom of the uterus and connects the uterine cavity with the vagina (birth canal).
Cervical cancer usually develops slowly, about 12-15 years. Prior to becoming cancerous, cells in the walls of the cervix to change the nature of the so-called dysplasia. Later, cancer cells begin to grow rapidly and spread well into the cervix and surrounding tissue.
Why I Can Hit by Cervical Cancer?
The cause of cervical cancer is difficult to know for sure. The experts could only find a few risk factors for cervical cancer. However, if there are no risk factors, does not mean a person is free of cancer.
The main risk factors for cervical cancer is infection with a virus called human papillomavirus (HPV). Not all women who become infected with HPV will get cancer, only about 5% only, because 95% of HPV infections will disappear on its own.
There are over 150 types of HPV, but only a few can cause cervical cancer, which most are HPV types 16 and 18. Other types are 31, 33, 35, 45, etc.. Groups of HPV that cause cervical cancer are called high risk types. If a woman infected with HPV high risk types, it is likely the infection will persist, not disappear, and cause pre-cancerous changes.
Most of the women who are sexually active can become infected with HPV. HPV infection usually does not cause any symptoms and go undetected for years. A woman has got a higher risk of HPV infection if it has more than one sex partner or sex partner has other sex partners.
Risk factors for cervical cancer are :
What are the symptoms of Cervical Cancer?
There are no specific symptoms of cervical cancer has just happened. If you have started a large, cervical cancer can give symptoms such as :
How Do I Know If My Cervix cancer?
Changes in normal cells become malignant or cancerous cells actually occurs in stages. Stages can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist experienced physician. Therefore, the only way to detect cervical cancer is to be checked out early. There are several ways of early detection of cervical cancer. Examination of the most recommended is the Pap smear or Pap test.
Pap smear is a procedure taking cells from the surface of the cervix and vagina with an instrument (spatula) are coated cotton. The cells are drawn and placed in a glass object and viewed under a microscope to determine whether normal or not.
What To Do After I Cervical Cancer Diagnosed?
If you have recently been diagnosed with cervical cancer, then you need to undergo a series of tests to find out how far the cancer has spread within your body, whether still in the cervix or to other body parts already. For that, you will be asked to undergo the following examinations:
Examination, the physical examination by a specialist gynecologic by inserting a finger into your vagina. The goal is to find out how far the tumor has spread and to determine the clinical stage of disease.
X-ray chest, X-ray examination of the chest cavity to look into the shadows of the organs in the chest, such as the heart and lungs. This examination is conducted to determine whether there are signs of the cancer cells have spread to the lungs.
Ultrasonography (USG) gynecology, namely the examination with high frequency sound waves to the inner reproductive organs, ie uterus, ovaries and other structures in the vicinity, such as the kidney, urinary tract, bladder, and colon. This examination can help confirm the stage of disease defined clinically. Ultrasound can see if the cancer causes blockage of the urinary tract and kidney swelling, penetrate into the bladder through the front or toward the back of the large intestine.
CT scan or MRI, the imaging of more detailed examination of the inside of your body and processed by computer. This examination can detect if there is spread of cancer cells to the organs in your body, like liver, spleen, kidney, and others.
Tumor biopsies, which is taking a bit of cervical cancer tissue to determine the type of cancer cells.
Stage Cervical Cancer
In stage 1, cancer has formed in the lining of the cervix. Stage I is divided into two stages IA and IB based on the depth of the cancer is found.
Stage IA: a small number of cancer cells found in cervical tissue using a microscope. Stage IA is divided into stages IA1 and IA2:
Stage IA1: cancer has a depth of not more than 3 mm and width not more than 7 mm.
Stage IA2: memiilki cancer depth of 3-5 mm and a width of not more than 7 mm.
Stadiu IB: on stadiu IB, cancer can only be viewed with a microscope and a depth of more than 5 mm or more than 7 mm wide, or it can be seen without a microscope. Cancers that can be seen without a microscope is divided into two, IB1 and IB2, based on tumor size.
Stage IB1: Cancer can be seen without a microscope and not more than 4 cm.
Stage IB2: Cancer can be seen without a microscope and more than 4 cm.
In stage II, cancer has spread beyond the cervix but not to the pelvic wall (the tissue that lines the body between the pelvis) or bottom third of the vagina. Stage II is divided into IIA and IIB, based on how far the cancer has spread.
Stage IIA: Cancer has spread beyond the cervix to two-thirds of the vagina but not to tissues around the uterus.
Stage IIB: Cancer has spread beyond the cervix to two-thirds of the vagina and the tissues around the uterus.
In stage III, cancer has spread to the lower third of the vagina or into the wall panggun, and / or have caused the kidneys are not functioning. Stage III is divided into stage IIIA and IIIB, based on how far the cancer has spread.
Stage IIIA: Cancer has spread to the lower third of the vagina but not to the pelvic wall.
Stage IIIB: Cancer has spread to the pelvic wall and / or the tumor is large enough to suppress and obstruct the ureter (the tube between the kidney and keih jar). This blockage causes the kidney to swell or not functioning. Cancer cells may also have spread to lymph nodes in the pelvis.
In stage IV, cancer has spread to the bladder, rectum, or other parts of the body. Stage IV is divided into stage IVA and IVB based on where the cancer spread is found.
Stage IVA: Cancer has spread to the bladder wall or rectum (lower bowel) and may have spread to lymph nodes in the pelvis.
Stage IVB: Cancer has spread beyond the pelvis and pelvic lymph nodes to other places in the body, such as liver, small intestine, or lungs.
Cervical Cancer Treatment
There are several types of treatment for cervical cancer, namely surgery (surgery), radiation and chemotherapy.
Surgery performed to remove the tumor. There are several procedures that can be done:
Konisasi: conical procedures remove tissue from the cervix and cervical canal (cervical canal). This procedure is also called a cone biopsy (cone biopsy).
Total hysterectomy, the removal of the entire uterus, including cervix. If done through the vagina, the action is called a vaginal hysterectomy. If done through an incision in the abdominal wall, the action is called a total abdominal hysterectomy (total abdominal hysterectomy). If done through a laparoscope, the operation is called a total laparoscopic hysterectomy. This time robotic surgery is the optimal choice to take the network with the appropriate hospital, accurate and secure
Radical hysterectomy, the removal of the uterus, cervix, vagina part, and the area surrounding tissues, including tendons (ligaments), ovary (ovarian), ovarian tract (fallopian tubes), and lymph glands in the vicinity .
Modified radical hysterectomy, the removal of the uterus, cervix, upper vagina, the veins and tissues that are closest to these organs. Nearby lymph nodes may also be drawn. This type of surgery did not lift a network of radical hysterectomy.
Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, the removal of both ovaries and ducts.
Eksenterasi pelvis, namely removal of the lower colon, rectum, and bladder. Cervix, vagina, ovaries and nearby lymph nodes are also removed. In the patient made an artificial hole (stoma) to place out of the urine and feces from the body into a reservoir bag.
Surgery freezing (cryosurgery), the operation uses a tool to freeze and destroy abnormal tissue, such as carcinoma in situ. This action is also called cryotherapy.
Laser surgery: A surgical procedure that uses a laser beam as a 'knife' to cut tissue without bleeding or to remove the tumor.
Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), which is the action that uses electric current passed through a thin wire as a knife to remove abnormal tissue or cancer.
Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment using high energy X-rays or other radiation to kill cancer cells or prevent subsequent growth. There are two types of radiation therapy, the radiation outside (external) and radiation in the (internal). External radiation is performed using a machine outside the body that emits radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation is performed using a radioactive substance is placed directly into or near the location of the cancer. The type and mode of administration of radiation depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated.
Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing cancer cells or prevent them from dividing (proliferating). Chemotherapy is usually done by incorporating the drug into the blood vessels (injection).
Selection of Therapy Based on Stage of Cancer
Therapy for pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix can be performed among others by :
Total hysterectomy for women who can not or does not want to have children.
Internal radiation therapy for women who can not undergo surgery.
Cervical Cancer Stage IA
Therapeutic option for stage IA are :
Stage IB Cervical Cancer
Choice of therapy for stage IB is :
Stage IIA Cervical Cancer
Treatment options for stage IIA are :
Stage IIB Cervical Cancer
Treatment of stage IIB cervical cancer may include internal and external radiation combined with chemotherapy.
Cervical Cancer Stage III
Treatment of stage III cervical cancer may include internal and external radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy.
Stage IVA Cervical Cancer
Treatment of stage IVA cervical cancer may include internal and external radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy.
Stage IVB Cervical Cancer
Treatment of stage IVB cervical cancer may include :
Cervical Cancer Recurrence
Treatment options for cervical cancer relapse are :
How the possibility of recovery (prognosis) for Me?
The possibility of recovery depends on several factors, among others: